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English Department Dependency Bank

Parsing Pro3Gres

Dependency Grammar

To linguists accustomed to constituency based syntactic representations, dependency based structures may look unfamiliar. Dependency Grammar (Tesnière 1959) focuses on grammatical relations, on government, on valency relations (e.g. Helbig 1992) and thus expresses the verb’s central valency relations like subject and object. From the verb, the concept of valency was then extended to other word classes like relational nouns or adjectives and also to adjuncts in addition to complements.

According to Tesnière, dependency relations hold between nuclei. The concept of nucleus roughly corresponds to noun and verb chunks (e.g. Abney 1995).

The Pro3Gres Parser

The Pro3Gres Parser has been developped by Gerold Schneider. 

For more details on our annotation scheme and the parser, see:


Schneider, Gerold (2008). Hybrid Long-Distance Functional Dependency Parsing. Doctoral Thesis, Institute of Computational Linguistics, University of Zurich.

Lehmann, Hans Martin & Schneider, Gerold (2012). BNC Dependency Bank 1.0. In Oksefjell, S., Ebeling, J. & Hasselgard, H. (Eds.), Aspects of corpus linguistics: compilation, annotation, analysis. Helsinki: Research Unit for Variation, Contacts, and Change in English.

Weiterführende Informationen


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